It seems that randomly the SMTP Out protocol setting 'Require Auth Match' set to 'Email address' does not work. Using an account from domainA, I am able to send a mail from an user of domainB.
I use SMTP SSL on port 465, a@domainA as authentication user and b@domainB as sender address. There is no whitelisting set for the source IP of the sender's computer (not the local address and not the internet IP). Sometimes the mail gets blocked (and the Outlook client receives a error on the send action), but most times the mail passes through and is delivered to the recipient, signed with the DKIM of the spoofed address.
The SMTP log states (where the real addresses are replaced by firstname.lastname@example.org as user and email@example.com as sender address configured in Outlook):
Authenticating as firstname.lastname@example.org
[2019.05.12] 12:32:28.234  rsp: 235 Authentication successful
[2019.05.12] 12:32:28.234  Authenticated as email@example.com
[2019.05.12] 12:32:28.249  cmd: MAIL FROM:<firstname.lastname@example.org>
[2019.05.12] 12:32:28.249  senderEmail(1): email@example.com parsed using: <firstname.lastname@example.org>
[2019.05.12] 12:32:28.265  rsp: 250 OK <email@example.com> Sender ok
[2019.05.12] 12:32:28.265  Sender accepted. Weight: 0. Block threshold: 50.
[2019.05.12] 12:32:28.280  cmd: RCPT TO:<firstname.lastname@example.org>
[2019.05.12] 12:32:28.280  rsp: 250 OK <email@example.com> Recipient ok
Overview of the SMTP Out settings:
Disabling 'Allow relay for authenticated users' disables (as mentioned in the manual) all outgoing email to external addresses so that option is enabled.